Monday, January 17, 2011

Definition of Emergency Maintenance

Emergency Maintenance, also called Reactionary Maintenance, is where a service request is generated after something breaks or is damaged. This is something that needs to be completed soon, to limit disruption to the operations and appearance of the facility.

This work is scheduled to be completed as quickly as possibly.

Preventive Maintenance

Preventive maintenance (PM) has the following meanings:

1. The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects.
2. Maintenance, including tests, measurements, adjustments, and parts replacement, performed specifically to prevent faults from occurring.

Preventive maintenance can be described as maintenance of equipment or systems before fault occurs. It can be divided into two subgroups:

* Planned maintenance
* and condition-based maintenance.

The main difference of subgroups is determination of maintenance time, or determination of moment when maintenance should be performed.

While preventive maintenance is generally considered to be worthwhile, there are risks such as equipment failure or human error involved when performing preventive maintenance, just as in any maintenance operation. Preventive maintenance as scheduled overhaul or scheduled replacement provides two of the three proactive failure management policies available to the maintenance engineer. Common methods of determining what Preventive (or other) failure management policies should be applied are; OEM recommendations, requirements of codes and legislation within a jurisdiction, what an "expert" thinks ought to be done, or the maintenance that's already done to similar equipment, and most important measured values and performance indications.

To make it simple:

* Preventive maintenance is conducted to keep equipment working and/or extend the life of the equipment.
* Corrective maintenance, sometimes called "repair," is conducted to get equipment working again.

The primary goal of maintenance is to avoid or mitigate the consequences of failure of equipment. This may be by preventing the failure before it actually occurs which Planned Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance help to achieve. It is designed to preserve and restore equipment reliability by replacing worn components before they actually fail. Preventive maintenance activities include partial or complete overhauls at specified periods, oil changes, lubrication and so on. In addition, workers can record equipment deterioration so they know to replace or repair worn parts before they cause system failure. The ideal preventive maintenance program would prevent all equipment failure before it occurs.

Schedule Maintenace / Planned Maintenance

Planned Preventative Maintenance ('PPM') or more usual just simple Planned Maintenance (PM) or Scheduled Maintenance is any variety of scheduled maintenance to an object or item of equipment. Specifically, Planned Maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent and suitable agent, to ensure that an item of equipment is operating correctly and to therefore avoid any unscheduled breakdown and downtime.

Together with Condition Based Maintenance, Planned maintenance comprises preventive maintenance, in which the maintenance event is preplanned, and all future maintenance is preprogrammed. Planned maintenance is created for every item separately according manufacturers recommendation or legislation. Plan can be based on equipment running hours, date based, or for vehicles distance travelled. Good example of PM program is car maintenance. After so many kilometers or miles oil should be changed, parts renewed,...

Planned maintenance has some advantages over Condition Based Maintenance such as:

* easier planning of maintenance and ordering spares,
* costs are distributed more evenly,
* no initial costs for instruments for supervision of equipment.

Disadvantages are:

* less reliable than equipment with CBM
* more expensive due to more frequent parts change.

Parts that have scheduled maintenance at fixed intervals, usually due to wearout or a fixed shelf life, are sometimes known as time-change interval, or TCI items.

Definition of Shcedule Maintenance

Level of maintenance that requires planning, allocation of significant amount of time, and high degree of coordination between different departments, and is typically initiated through a work order.

The purpose of an effective preventative maintenance

The purpose of an effective preventative maintenance plan is to achieve the following
five key goals:

• Preserve taxpayers’ investments in public buildings. Preventive maintenance
can extend the life of building components, thus sustaining buildings’ value and
the significant tax dollars they represent.

• Help buildings function as they were intended and operate at peak efficiency,
including minimizing energy consumption. Because preventive maintenance
keeps equipment functioning as designed, it reduces inefficiencies in operations
and energy usage.

• Prevent failures of building systems that would interrupt occupants’
activities and the delivery of public services. Buildings that operate trouble-free
allow public employees to do their jobs and serve the public. Because preventive
maintenance includes regular inspections and replacement of equipment crucial to
operating a building, maintenance staff reduce the problems that might otherwise
lead to a breakdown in operations.

• Sustain a safe and healthful environment by keeping buildings and their
components in good repair and structurally sound. Protecting the physical
integrity of building components through preventive maintenance preserves a safe
environment for employees and the public.

• Provide maintenance in ways that are cost-effective. Preventive maintenance
can prevent minor problems from escalating into major system and equipment
failures that result in costly repairs. In avoiding costs of major repairs, preventive
maintenance creates efficiencies. Increasing preventive maintenance can reduce
time spent reacting to crises, which is a more cost-effective way to operate
buildings. Deferring preventive maintenance can generate higher costs over the
long term.

Building Maintenance

Building systems that will be included in the maintenance program include:
1. Structural systems
2. Roofing systems
3. Exterior envelope including windows, caulking, stucco, paint
4. Air conditioning, heating, and ventilation systems
5. Elevators and escalators
6. Electrical switchgear, lighting, power distribution, emergency generators
7. Plumbing systems
8. Fire sprinkler systems and pumps
9. General housekeeping and janitorial
10. Pavements and grounds
11. Utilities
12. Swimming pools and other amenities

Building Maintenance

How to Schedule Building Maintenance

Proper building maintenance is imperative to keeping a business or apartment building suitable for occupation and keeping it a sound investment. A comprehensive building maintenance schedule to address any repair issues as well as preventative maintenance will ensure your tenants will stay as happy as your profit margins are high.

1. Inspect the building. You should have a professional building inspector visit and do a complete assessment of the building from interior and exterior to plumbing and heating. He will give you a detailed list of the areas that need improvement as well as give you an idea of which projects should be prioritized. In some cases, he may be able to estimate repair costs.

2.List your repairs. Write each area of the building along the top of a piece of paper, such as plumbing, interior, exterior, electrical and appliances, then write down each repair under its appropriate category. This gives you an idea of which areas need the most improvement. You may be surprised at the sheer number of the items on the list, but remember that they do not all have to be done at once.

3.Prioritize the projects. Any projects that may affect the health and well-being of your tenants should be done immediately so as not to endanger your tenants or expose you to litigation. Outdated wiring and appliances should be made a priority after that, and any cosmetic changes can be done at your leisure.

4.Make a list of preventative maintenance requirements. Just because the heating and cooling system wasn't on the list, doesn't mean it shouldn't be cleaned or checked out. Scheduling in time to replace intake filters or refill water softener tablets can save you money in repairs later and show your tenants that you are looking out for them and their business.

5.Draft the schedule. Your list should now be prioritized by section of the house. Look at your finances and financial outlook to see how much you can do right away and what you can afford down the line. Create a plan for the year, if not two years, with goals and objectives for each month, that also incorporates preventative maintenance. (A listing of items to look for during inspection is provided as Reference 2).

Read more: How to Schedule Building Maintenance |

Tugasan 2 C 3001 DKA3S4

Tugasan 2 C3001


Kerja-kerja perobohan bangunan merupakan suatu kerja yang amat mencabar dan memerlukan kepakaran di dalam perlaksanaannya. Anda dikehendakki membuat kajian di internet tentang kerja-kerja perobohan yang telah dilakukan oleh kontraktor-kontraktor yang terkemuka.

a. Sila senaraikan dan terangkan secara ringkas tentang jenis-jenis perobohan yang ada dan kaedah-kaedah perobohan yang digunakan.

b. Sila pilih salah satu daripada jenis dan kaedah perobohan yang didapati dari kajian anda dan huraikan tentang kelebihan2 dan kelemahan yang terdapat dalam kaedah perobohan tersebut.

Tarikh Hantar : 8 Feb 2011

Tugasan 1 C 3001

Tugasan 1 C 3001 DKA3S4


Dalam pembinaan bangunan komersial, sistem pencegahan kebakaran merupakan suatu element yang wajib diadakan pada sesebuah bangunan tersebut. Jenis-jenis sistem pencegahan kebakaran adalah berbeza dengan fungsi dan kegunaan bangunan.

Anda dikehendaki membuat kajian tentang sistem-sistem pencegahan kebakaran yang terdapat di dalam kampus PSMZA. Sila sertakan gambar-gambar dan juga plan lokasi yang berkenaan sebagai sokongan tambahan terhadap tugasan anda.

Tarikh hantar : 25 Januari 2011

Thursday, January 13, 2011

Tugasan 1 C 4302 KSS

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Jabatan Kejuruteraan awam
C 4302 Highway and Transportation Engineering
Assignment 1
1. Highways are designed to meet the requirement of vehicle, driver and traffic. What important aspects of human behavior must be considered in the geometric design og highways? (15 m)

2. Discuss the important of a transition curve in the horizontal alignment from the viewpoint of driver comfort , superelevation requirements and pavement widening at corners. (15 m)

3. Traffic island are widely used in junction design to promote junction traffic safety. With the aid of sketches , illustrate some examples on use of traffic islands to promote traffic safety at Tee-junctions. (20 m)

Thursday, January 6, 2011

Tugasan 1: C5306 Kejuruteraan Tapak DKA6

Tugasan 1: Kejuruteraan Tapak

"Sampling" boleh dilakukan secara tidak terganggu, diuji di situ dalam keadaan asal ataupun dalam keadaan terganggu. Terangkan dengan jelas dan tentang teknik-teknik pensampelan yang menggunakan kaedah lubang jara (boreholes)